Phenolic Compounds Characteristic of the Mediterranean Diet in Mitigating Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation
|Author||Hornedo Ortega, Ruth
Cerezo López, Ana Belén
Martínez de Pablos, Rocío
García Parrilla, María del Carmen
Troncoso González, Ana María
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Toxicología y Medicina Legal
Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
|Abstract||Neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of quite a number of Central Nervous System diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease among others. The hallmark of brain neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, ...
Neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of quite a number of Central Nervous System diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease among others. The hallmark of brain neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, which are the immune resident cells in the brain and represents the first line of defense when injury or disease occur. Microglial activated cells can adopt different phenotypes to carry out its diverse functions. Thus, the shift into pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic or anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective phenotypes, depending of the brain environment, has totally changed the understanding of microglia in neurodegenerative disease. For this reason, novel therapeutic strategies which aim to modify the microglia polarization are being developed. Additionally, the understanding of how nutrition may influence the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases has grown greatly in recent years. The protective role of Mediterranean diet (MD) in preventing neurodegenerative diseases has been reported in a number of studies. The Mediterranean dietary pattern includes as distinctive features the moderate intake of red wine and extra virgin olive oil, both of them rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol and their derivatives, which have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects on microglia on in vitro studies. This review summarizes our understanding of the role of dietary phenolic compounds characteristic of the MD in mitigating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, including explanation regarding their bioavailability, metabolism and blood–brain barrier.