Novel SCAMPs Lacking NPF Repeats: Ubiquitous and Synaptic Vesicle-Specific Forms Implicate SCAMPs in Multiple Membrane- Trafficking Functions
Südhof, Thomas C.
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Fisiología Médica y Biofísica|
|Published in||The Journal of Neuroscience, November 1, 2000, 20(21):7941–7950Journal of neuroscience, 20 (21), 7941-7950.|
|Abstract||In vertebrates, secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) 1–3 constitute a family of putative membrane-trafficking proteins composed of cytoplasmic N-terminal sequences with NPF repeats, four central transmembrane regions ...
In vertebrates, secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) 1–3 constitute a family of putative membrane-trafficking proteins composed of cytoplasmic N-terminal sequences with NPF repeats, four central transmembrane regions (TMRs), and a cytoplasmic tail. SCAMPs probably function in endocytosis by recruiting EH-domain proteins to the N-terminal NPF repeats but may have additional functions mediated by their other sequences. We now demonstrate that SCAMPs form a much larger and more heterogeneous protein family than envisioned previously, with an evolutionary conservation extending to invertebrates and plants. Two novel vertebrate SCAMPs (SCAMPs 4 and 5), single SCAMP genes in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and multiple SCAMPs in Arabidopsis thaliana were identified. Interestingly, the novel SCAMPs 4 and 5 lack the N-terminal NPF repeats that are highly conserved in all other SCAMPs. RNA and Western blotting experiments showed that SCAMPs 1–4 are ubiquitously coexpressed, whereas SCAMP 5 is only detectable in brain where it is expressed late in development coincident with the elaboration of mature synapses. Immunocytochemistry revealed that SCAMP 5 exhibits a synaptic localization, and subcellular fractionations demonstrated that SCAMP 5 is highly enriched in synaptic vesicles. Our studies characterize SCAMPs as a heterogeneous family of putative trafficking proteins composed of three isoforms that are primarily synthesized outside of neurons (SCAMPs 2–4), one isoform that is ubiquitously expressed but highly concentrated on synaptic vesicles (SCAMP 1), and one brain-specific isoform primarily localized to synaptic vesicles (SCAMP 5). The conservation of the TMRs in all SCAMPs with the variable presence of N-terminal NPF repeats suggests that in addition to the role of some SCAMPs in endocytosis mediated by their NPF repeats, all SCAMPs perform a “core” function in membrane traffic mediated by their TMRs.