A new microbial gluten-degrading prolyl endopeptidase: Potential application in celiac disease to reduce gluten immunogenic peptides
|Author||Moreno Amador, María de Lourdes
Arévalo Rodríguez, Miguel
Mellado Durán, María Encarnación
Martínez Reyes, Juan Carlos
Sousa Martín, Carolina
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología|
|Abstract||Gluten is a complex of proteins present in barley, wheat, rye and several varieties of oats that triggers celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic ...
Gluten is a complex of proteins present in barley, wheat, rye and several varieties of oats that triggers celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Gluten is notoriously difficult to digest by mammalian proteolytic enzymes and therefore, proline-rich digestion-resistant peptides contain multiple immunogenic epitopes. Prolyl endopeptidases (PEP) hydrolyse internal proline residues on the carboxyl side of peptides and have been proposed for food gluten detoxification and as oral enzyme supplementation for celiacs. The aim of this study was to identify new gluten-degrading microbial enzymes with the potential to reduce gluten immunogenicity by neutralizing its antigenic epitopes. Using a gluten-degrading colony screening approach, a bacterial isolate (2RA3) displaying the highest glutenase activity was selected, characterized and its genome completely sequenced. The identification through 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed a 99,1% similarity to Chryseobacterium taeanense. Hydrolysis of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) was further monitored, over a 48-hour period, by colony encapsulation in gliadin-containing microspheres, followed by detection with the G12 anti-GIP monoclonal antibody. Glutenase activity was detected in the extracellular medium of 2RA3 cultures, where gel electrophoresis and gliadin zymography revealed the presence of a ~50 kDa gluten-degrading enzyme. Nano-ESI-Q-TOF of the excised active band identified 7 peptides contained in the protein product predicted for an open reading frame (ORF) in the 2RA3 genome. Based on sequence similarity to the PEP family, the new enzyme was named PEP 2RA3. The PEP 2RA3 coding sequence was PCR-amplified from C. taeanense 2RA3, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally His-tagged recombinant protein and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein, with predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 78.95 kDa and 6.8, respectively, shows PEP activity with standard chromogenic substrates, works optimally at pH 8.0 and 30°C and remains stable at pH 6.0 and 50°C, indicating a potential use in gluten-containing food process applications. The ability of the recombinant enzyme to degrade GIP in beer into smaller peptides was confirmed.
|Funding agencies||Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICIN). España|
|Citation||Moreno Amador, M.d.L., Arévalo Rodríguez, M., Mellado Durán, M.E., Martínez Reyes, J.C. y Sousa Martín, C. (2019). A new microbial gluten-degrading prolyl endopeptidase: Potential application in celiac disease to reduce gluten immunogenic peptides. PLOS ONE, 14 (6), e0218346.|