Risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a systematic review
|Author||Palacios-Baena, Zaira R.
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Medicina|
Rapid and widespread increases in carbapenem resistance (CR) necessitate identification of risk factors to guide appropriate interventions.
We aimed to identify risk factors for CR Gram-negative ...
ackground Rapid and widespread increases in carbapenem resistance (CR) necessitate identification of risk factors to guide appropriate interventions. Objectives We aimed to identify risk factors for CR Gram-negative infection through a systematic literature review. Data sources We searched MEDLINE (via OvidSP and PubMed) and Embase (via OvidSP) databases and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study eligibility criteria Prospective or retrospective cohort and case–control studies reporting quantitative data on risk factors associated with infections due to CR Gram-negative pathogens in hospitalized patients were eligible. Participants Studies included hospitalized patients with CR infection caused by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Enterobacterales and non-fermenters). Methods Searches were conducted in January 2018/December 2019 to identify studies published since 2007. Risk factor data were extracted and grouped by factor. The primary metric was proportion of studies reporting a significant association with CR infection for each factor. Results In total, 92 studies were identified. Risk factors most frequently reported as significantly associated with CR infection (>10 studies) were previous antibiotic use (91.1%; 72/79 studies); previous carbapenem use (82.6%; 57/69); previous colonization (72.7%; 8/11); mechanical ventilation (66.7%; 36/54); previous intensive care unit stay (64.4%; 38/59); dialysis (61.1%; 11/18); catheter (58.0%; 40/69); length of stay in hospital (54.5%; 30/55); comorbidities (52.7%; 39/74); APACHE II (51.7%; 15/29); and intubation (51.4%; 18/35). Risk factors were mostly consistent across different species and sites of infection. Conclusions Several variables, particularly previous antibiotic use, are strong risk factors for CR infection. Interventions to mitigate against CR infection should target these factors.
|Citation||Palacios-Baena, Z.R., Giannella, M., Manissero, D., Rodríguez-Baño, J., Viale, P., Lopes, S.,...,Longshaw, C. (2021). Risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections: a systematic review. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 27 (2), 228-235.|