Nutritional quality of the most consumed varieties of raw and cooked rice in Spain submitted to an in vitro digestion model
|Author/s||Aguilera Velázquez, José Raúl
Carbonero Aguilar, María del Pilar
Hinojosa Hidalgo, María Gracia
Moreno Navarro, Isabel María
Bautista Palomas, Juan Dionisio
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Toxicología y Medicina Legal
|Abstract||Rice is one of the most consumed staple foods around the world and its trade is highly globalized. Increased environmental pollution generates a large amount of waste that, in many cases, is discarded close to culture ...
Rice is one of the most consumed staple foods around the world and its trade is highly globalized. Increased environmental pollution generates a large amount of waste that, in many cases, is discarded close to culture fields. Some species are able to bioaccumulate toxic substances, such as metals, that could be transferred to the food chain. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the content of metallic (Al, Cd, Pb, and Cr) and metalloid elements (As) in 14 of the most consumed varieties of rice in Spain and their effects on human health. The samples were cooked, and human digestion was simulated by using a standard in vitro digestion method. Metallic and metalloid element levels were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES), previous called microwave digestion. Both the human health risk index, Hazard Quotient, and Lifetime Cancer Risk did not show toxic values in any case. Rice with a higher non-digestible fraction showed a higher liberation of proteins and a lower glycemic index. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of metallic and metalloid elements in cooked rice or in the digestible fraction in all varieties analysed. However, Al concentrations were higher than other metals in all varieties studied due to its global distribution. No relationship has been observed between the digestibility of rice and the bioaccessibility of each metallic and metalloid element. All of the studied rice varieties are healthy food products and its daily consumption is safe. The regular monitoring of metals and As in rice consumed in Spain may contribute to improvements in the human health risk evaluation.
|Citation||Aguilera Velázquez, J.R., Carbonero Aguilar, M.d.P., Martín-Carrasco, I., Hinojosa Hidalgo, M.G., Moreno Navarro, I.M. y Bautista Palomas, J.D. (2021). Nutritional quality of the most consumed varieties of raw and cooked rice in Spain submitted to an in vitro digestion model. Foods, 10 (11), 2584.|