Food Safety and Cross-Contamination of Gluten-Free Products: A Narrative Review
Segura Montero, Verónica
Ruiz Carnicer, Ángela
Sousa Martín, Carolina
Comino Montilla, Isabel María
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología|
|Published in||Nutrients, 13 (7), 2244.|
|Abstract||A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease (CD); an individual’s daily intake of gluten should not exceed 10 mg. However, it is difficult to maintain a strict oral diet for life ...
A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only effective treatment for celiac disease (CD); an individual’s daily intake of gluten should not exceed 10 mg. However, it is difficult to maintain a strict oral diet for life and at least one-third of patients with CD are exposed to gluten, despite their best efforts at dietary modifications. It has been demonstrated that both natural and certified gluten-free foods can be heavily contaminated with gluten well above the commonly accepted threshold of 20 mg/kg. Moreover, meals from food services such as restaurants, workplaces, and schools remain a significant risk for inadvertent gluten exposure. Other possible sources of gluten are non-certified oat products, numerous composite foods, medications, and cosmetics that unexpectedly contain “hidden” vital gluten, a proteinaceous by-product of wheat starch production. A number of immunochemical assays are commercially available worldwide to detect gluten. Each method has specific features, such as format, sample extraction buffers, extraction time and temperature, characteristics of the antibodies, recognition epitope, and the reference material used for calibration. Due to these differences and a lack of official reference material, the results of gluten quantitation may deviate systematically. In conclusion, incorrect gluten quantitation, improper product labeling, and poor consumer awareness, which results in the inadvertent intake of relatively high amounts of gluten, can be factors that compromise the health of patients with CD.
|Citation||Wieser, H., Segura Montero, V., Ruiz Carnicer, Á., Sousa Martín, C. y Comino Montilla, I.M. (2021). Food Safety and Cross-Contamination of Gluten-Free Products: A Narrative Review. Nutrients, 13 (7), 2244.|
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