Osmoprotectants in Halomonas elongata: High-affinity betaine transport system and choline-betaine pathway
|Author||Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José
Cánovas López, David
Vargas Macías, Carmen
Ventosa Ucero, Antonio
Csonka, Laszlo N.
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología|
|Published in||Journal of Bacteriology, 178, 7221-7226|
|Abstract||The osmoregulatory pathways of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 have been investigated. This strain grew optimally at 1.5 to 2 M NaCl in M63 glucose-defined medium. It required at least 0.5 M NaCl for growth, which is ...
The osmoregulatory pathways of the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata DSM 3043 have been investigated. This strain grew optimally at 1.5 to 2 M NaCl in M63 glucose-defined medium. It required at least 0.5 M NaCl for growth, which is a higher concentration than that exhibited by the H. elongata type strain ATCC 33173. Externally provided betaine, choline, or choline-O-sulfate (but not proline, ectoine, or proline betaine) enhanced the growth of H. elongata on 3 M NaCl–glucose–M63 plates, demonstrating the utilization of these compounds as osmoprotectants. Moreover, betaine and choline stimulated the growth of H. elongata DSM 3043 over the entire range of salinity, although betaine was more effective than choline at salin- ities below and above the optimum. We found that H. elongata DSM 3043 has at least one high-affinity transport system for betaine (Km = 3.06 J..M and Vmax = 9.96 nmol of betaine min mg of protein -1). Competition assays demonstrated that proline betaine and ectoine, but not proline, choline, or choline-O-sulfate, are also transported by the betaine permease. Finally, thin-layer chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that exogenous choline was taken up and transformed to betaine by H. elongata, demonstrating the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in this moderately halophilic bacterium.