Nutrition-Related Adverse Outcomes in Endurance Sports Competitions: A Review of Incidence and Practical Recommendations
|Author/s||Martínez Sanz, José Miguel
Fernández Nuñez, Ana
Martínez Rodríguez, Alejandro
González Jurado, José Antonio
Sánchez Oliver, Antonio Jesús
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Educación Física y Deporte|
|Abstract||During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased signiﬁcantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an ...
During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased signiﬁcantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems. The aim of the work is to estimate the incidence of nutrition-related adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports, considering the variables that inﬂuence them. A critical review was carried out based on the PubMed database, by means of a search strategy based on keywords separatedbyBooleanconnectors. Foralltheresultsobtainedinaperiodfrom2008to2019,aseriesof inclusion/exclusioncriteriawasappliedtoselectonlythestudiesthatﬁttedtheobjectiveofthepresent study. Results and discussion: Of the 871 publications identiﬁed, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The adverse outcomes found included exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), heat stroke by exertion (EHS),gastrointestinal(GI)problems,dehydration,andhypothermia;theprovisionofmisinformation to athletes about nutrient intake and hydration during competition was identiﬁed as the main cause. Conclusions: The main adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities are EAH, GI inconveniences, and EHS. These problems can aﬀect the performance and health status of the athlete during and post-competition. Several nutritional guidelines have been suggested that can prevent these adverse outcomes, and it is essential to individualize and adjust the nutritional intake and hydration status according to the characteristics of each competition.
|Citation||Martínez Sanz, J.M., Fernández Nuñez, A., Sospedra, I., Martínez Rodríguez, A., Domínguez, R., González Jurado, J.A. y Sánchez Oliver, A.J. (2020). Nutrition-Related Adverse Outcomes in Endurance Sports Competitions: A Review of Incidence and Practical Recommendations. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health., 17 (11), 4082-5001. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114082.|
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