Assessment of pharmaceutical mixture (ibuprofen, ciprofloxacin and flumequine) effects to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: A multilevel analysis (biochemical, transcriptional and proteomic approaches)
Montilla López, Alejandro
Fernández Torres, Rut
Bello López, Miguel Ángel
|Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Química Analítica
|The knowledge about the effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms has been increasing in the last decade. However, due to the variety of compounds presents in the aquatic medium, exposure scenarios and exposed ...
The knowledge about the effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms has been increasing in the last decade. However, due to the variety of compounds presents in the aquatic medium, exposure scenarios and exposed organisms, there are still many gaps in the knowledge on how mixtures of such bioactive compounds affect exposed non target organisms. The crayfish Procambarus clarkii was used to analyze the toxicity effects of mixtures of ciprofloxacin, flumequine and ibuprofen at low and high concentrations (10 and 100 μg/L) over 21 days of exposure and to assess the recovery capacity of the organism after a depuration phase following exposure during additional 7 days in clean water. The crayfish accumulated the three compounds throughout the entire exposure in the hepatopancreas. The exposure to the mixture altered the abundance of proteins associated with different cells functions such as biotransformation and detoxification processes (i.e. catalase and glutathione transferase), carbohydrate metabolism and immune responses. Additionally changes in expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and in activity of the corresponding enzymes (i.e. superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase) were reported. Alterations at different levels of biological organization did not run in parallel under all circumstances and can be related to changes in the redox status of the target tissue. No differences were observed between control and exposed organisms for most of selected endpoints after a week of depuration, indicating that exposure to the drug mixture did not produce permanent damage in the hepatopancreas of P. clarkii.
|Trombini, C., Kazakova, J., Montilla López, A., Fernández-Cisnal, R., Hampel, M., Fernández Torres, R.,...,Blasco, J. (2021). Assessment of pharmaceutical mixture (ibuprofen, ciprofloxacin and flumequine) effects to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii: A multilevel analysis (biochemical, transcriptional and proteomic approaches). Environmental Research, 200, 111396.