A new flow focusing technique to produce very thin jets
|Acero, A. J.
Rebollo Muñoz, N.
Montanero, J. M.
Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.
Vega, Emilio J.
|Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Ingeniería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos
|A new technique is proposed in this paper to produce jets, droplets, and emulsions with sizes ranging from tens of microns down to the submicrometer scale. Liquid is injected at a constant flow rate through a hypodermic ...
A new technique is proposed in this paper to produce jets, droplets, and emulsions with sizes ranging from tens of microns down to the submicrometer scale. Liquid is injected at a constant flow rate through a hypodermic needle to form a film over the needle's outer surface. This film flows toward the needle tip until a liquid ligament is steadily ejected. Both the film motion and the liquid ejection are driven by the viscous and pressure forces exerted by a coflowing fluid stream. If this stream is a high-speed gas current, the outcome is a capillary jet which breaks up into droplets due to the Rayleigh instability. Micrometer emulsions are also produced by this instability mechanism when the injected liquid is focused by a viscous liquid stream. The minimum flow rates reached with the proposed technique are two orders of magnitude lower than those of the standard flow focusing configuration. This sharp reduction of the minimum flow rate allows one to form steady jets with radii down to the submicrometer scale. The stability of this new configuration is analyzed experimentally for both gas-liquid and liquid-liquid systems. In most of the cases, the loss of stability must be attributed to the liquid source because the critical Weber (capillary) number for the gas-liquid (liquid-liquid) case was significantly greater than the value corresponding to the convective/absolute instability transition in the jet.
|Acero, A.J., Rebollo Muñoz, N., Montanero, J.M., Gañán-Calvo, A.M. y Vega, E.J. (2013). A new flow focusing technique to produce very thin jets. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 23 (6), Article number 065009.