Rings reconcile genotypic and phenotypic evolution within the proteobacteria
|Author/s||Lake, James A.
Ruiz de la Haba, Rafael
Sinsheimer, Janet S.
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología|
|Abstract||Although prokaryotes are usually classified using molecular phylogenies instead of phenotypes after the advent of gene sequencing, neither of these methods is satisfactory because the phenotypes cannot explain the molecular ...
Although prokaryotes are usually classified using molecular phylogenies instead of phenotypes after the advent of gene sequencing, neither of these methods is satisfactory because the phenotypes cannot explain the molecular trees and the trees do not fit the phenotypes. This scientific crisis still exists and the profound disconnection between these two pillars of evolutionary biology - genotypes and phenotypes - grows larger. We use rings and agenomic formofgoods thinking to resolve this conundrum (McInerney JO,Cummins C, Haggerty L. 2011. Goods thinking vs. tree thinking.Mobile Genet Elements. 1:304-308; Nelson-Sathi S, et al. 2015. Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria. Nature 517:77-80). The Proteo bacteria is the most speciose prokaryotic phylum known. It is an ideal phylogenetic model for reconstructing Earth's evolutionary history. It contains diverse free living, pathogenic, photosynthetic, sulfur metabolizing, and symbiotic species. Due to its large number of species (Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ. 1998. Prokaryotes: the unseen majority. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A. 95:6578-6583) it was initially expected to provide strong phylogenetic support for a proteobacterial tree of life. But despite its many species, sequence based tree analyses are unable to resolve its topology. Here we developnewrooted ring analyses and study proteobacterial evolution. Using protein family data and new genome-based outgroup rooting procedures, we reconstruct the complex evolutionary history of the proteobacterial rings (combinations of tree-like divergences and endosymbiotic-like convergences). We identify and map the origins of major gene flows within the rooted proteobacterial rings (P<3.6-10-6) and find that the evolution of the "Alpha-," "Beta-," and "Gammaproteobacteria" is represented by a unique set of rings. Using new techniques presented here we also root these rings using outgroups. We also map the independent flows of genes involved in DNA-, RNA-, ATP-, and membrane- related processes within the Proteobacteria and thereby demonstrate that these large gene flows are consistent with endosymbioses (P<3.6×10-9). Our analyses illustrate what it means to find that a gene is present, or absent, within a gene flow, and thereby clarify the origin of the apparent conflicts between genotypes and phenotypes. Here we identify the gene flows that introduced photosynthesis into the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria from the common ancestor of the Actinobacteria and the Firmicutes. Our results also explain why rooted rings, unlike trees, are consistent with the observed genotypic and phenotypic relationships observed among the various proteobacterial classes. We find that ring phylogenies can explain the genotypes and the phenotypes of biological processes within large and complex groups like the Proteobacteria.
|Citation||Lake, J.A., Larsen, J., Sarna, B., Ruiz de la Haba, R., Pu, Y., Koo, H.,...,Sinsheimer, J.S. (2015). Rings reconcile genotypic and phenotypic evolution within the proteobacteria. Genome Biology and Evolution, 7 (12), 3434-3442.|
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