The role of Galectin-3 in α-synuclein-induced microglial activation
|Boza Serrano, Antonio
Reyes, Juan F.
Rey, Nolwen L.
Nilsson, Ulf J.
Venero Recio, José Luis
Burguillos García, Miguel Ángel
|Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular
s disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative motor disorder. The neuropathology is
characterized by intraneuronal protein aggregates of
-synuclein and progressive degeneration of ...
Background: Parkinson ’ s disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative motor disorder. The neuropathology is characterized by intraneuronal protein aggregates of α -synuclein and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. Previous studies have shown that extracellular α -synuclein aggregates can activate microglial cells, induce inflammation and contribute to the neurodegenerative process in PD. However, the signaling pathways involved in α -synuclein-mediated microglia activation are poorly understood. Galectin-3 is a member of a carbohydrate-binding protein family involved in cell activation and inflammation. Therefore, we investigated whether galectin-3 is involved in the microglia activation triggered by α -synuclein. Results: We cultured microglial (BV2) cells and induced cell activation by addition of exogenous α -synuclein monomers or aggregates to the cell culture medium. This treatment induced a significant increase in the levels of proinflammatory mediators including the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), interleukin 1 Beta (IL-1 β ) and Interleukin-12 (IL-12). We then reduced the levels of galectin-3 expression using siRNA or pharmacologically targeting galectin-3 activity using bis-(3-deoxy-3-(3-fluorophenyl-1 H -1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)- β -D-galactopyranosyl)-sulfane. Both approaches led to a significant reduction in the observed inflammatory response induced by α -synuclein. We confirmed these findings using primary microglial cells obtained from wild-type and galectin-3 null mutant mice. Finally, we performed injections of α -synuclein in the olfactory bulb of wild type mice and observed that some of the α -synuclein was taken up by activated microglia that were immunopositive for galectin-3. Conclusions: We show that α -synuclein aggregates induce microglial activation and demonstrate for the first time that galectin-3 plays a significant role in microglia activation induced by α -synuclein. These results suggest that genetic down-regulation or pharmacological inhibition of galectin-3 might constitute a novel therapeutic target in PD and other synucleinopathies
|Boza Serrano, A., Reyes, J.F., Rey, N.L., Leffler, H., Bousset, L., Nilsson, U.J.,...,Deierborg, T. (2014). The role of Galectin-3 in α-synuclein-induced microglial activation. Acta neuropathologica communications, 2, 1-14.