Diversification of the celiac disease α-gliadin complex in wheat: A 33-mer peptide with six overlapping epitopes, evolved following polyploidization
|Author||Ozuna Serafini, Carmen Victoria
Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru
Giménez Alvear, María J.
Álvarez, Juan B.
Sousa Martín, Carolina
|Department||Universidad de Sevilla. Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología|
|Published in||Plant Journal, 82 (5), 794-805.|
|Abstract||Summary The gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye are responsible both for celiac disease (CD) and for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, two pathologies affecting up to 6-8% of the human population worldwide. The wheat ...
Summary The gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye are responsible both for celiac disease (CD) and for non-celiac gluten sensitivity, two pathologies affecting up to 6-8% of the human population worldwide. The wheat α-gliadin proteins contain three major CD immunogenic peptides: p31-43, which induces the innate immune response; the 33-mer, formed by six overlapping copies of three highly stimulatory epitopes; and an additional DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope which partially overlaps with the 33-mer. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing of α-gliadin genes from diploid and polyploid wheat provided six types of α-gliadins (named 1-6) with strong differences in their frequencies in diploid and polyploid wheat, and in the presence and abundance of these CD immunogenic peptides. Immunogenic variants of the p31-43 peptide were found in most of the α-gliadins. Variants of the DQ2.5-glia-α3 epitope were associated with specific types of α-gliadins. Remarkably, only type 1 α-gliadins contained 33-mer epitopes. Moreover, the full immunodominant 33-mer fragment was only present in hexaploid wheat at low abundance, probably as the result of allohexaploidization events from subtype 1.2 α-gliadins found only in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. Type 3 α-gliadins seem to be the ancestral type as they are found in most of the α-gliadin-expressing Triticeae species. These findings are important for reducing the incidence of CD by the breeding/selection of wheat varieties with low stimulatory capacity of T cells. Moreover, advanced genome-editing techniques (TALENs, CRISPR) will be easier to implement on the small group of α-gliadins containing only immunogenic peptides. Significance Statement The α-gliadins contain the most-immunogenic epitopes responsible of gluten intolerances. By NGS technology a comprehensive study of α-gliadins containing these immunogenic epitopes in diploid and polyploid wheats showed six types of α-gliadins. However, only Type 1, but not the others, contains all the immunogenic peptides and epitopes. These findings are important for preventing/reducing the incidence of CD and wheat breeding as we identify five types of α-gliadins that do not contain epitopes for the 33-mer.
|Cite||Ozuna, C.V., Iehisa, J.C.M., Giménez Alvear, M.J., Álvarez, J.B., Sousa Martín, C. y Barro, F. (2015). Diversification of the celiac disease α-gliadin complex in wheat: A 33-mer peptide with six overlapping epitopes, evolved following polyploidization. Plant Journal, 82 (5), 794-805.|